Alpha blockers may also be a useful adjunct in the treatment of both ureteral and renal stones with SWL. They may also reduce the urinary symptoms and pain associated with double-J ureteral stents. Further investigation is necessary to define the role of blockers in the treatment of proximal ureteral and renal stones, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms of renal stone clearance after surgical stone intervention.
Sixty full-text articles and peer-reviewed abstract presentations were included in the qualitative synthesis of this systematic review performed over the last 2 years. Current super pulsed TFL machines are capable of achieving peak powers of 500W and emit very small pulse energies of 0.025 Joules going up to 6 Joules, and capable of frequency over 2000 Hz. This makes the TFL ablate twice as fast for fragmentation, 4 times as fast for dusting, more stone dust of finer size and less retropulsion compared to the Ho:YAG laser. Because of the smaller laser fibres with the TFL, future miniaturization of instruments is also possible.
Administration of perioperative Flomax seems to not only to significantly decrease the need for intra-operative dilatation and hence operative time, but also leads to a significant decrease in the development of postoperative LUTs, postoperative pain and the need for analgesia and hospital stay.
Despite the relatively low stone-free rates in lower pole stones, our current results indicate that fURS can be an effective and safe treatment alternative to PNL in larger renal stones (>20 mm) located in the pelvis and in the upper part of the calyceal system of the involved kidney.
In this study, disposable flexible ureteroscopes have been validated as an option that is in the least equivalent to reusable ureteroscopes based on clinical results. The shorter surgical and fluoroscopy durations are possible advantages considering the high costs associated with time spent in the operating room and the need to reduce ionizing radiation.
Antegrade ureteroscopy is an efficient and safe option for the management of large proximal ureteral stones. It may achieve high stone-free rates compared to retrograde ureteroscopy with the drawback of longer operative time, fluoroscopy time, and length of hospitalization.